Tuesday, July 23, 2024


What is two state solution to resolve conflict between Israel and Palestine?

December 03, 2023 07:58 PM

The two-state solution is a proposed framework for resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by establishing two states for two peoples: Israel for the Jewish people and Palestine for the Palestinian people. This framework was formally adopted by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in the 1993 Oslo Accords, which led to the establishment of the Palestinian Authority (PA) in parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

The two-state solution is based on the principle of land for peace, which means that Israel would withdraw from the territories it occupied in the 1967 Six-Day War in exchange for peace and recognition from its Arab neighbours, including the Palestinians¹. The boundary between the two states is still subject to dispute and negotiation, but it is mainly based on the 1967 lines, which are the armistice lines that separated Israel from the West Bank and Gaza Strip before the war.

The main issues that need to be resolved for the two-state solution to be implemented are:

- The status of Jerusalem, which both sides claim as their capital and which contains holy sites for Jews, Muslims, and Christians.
- The fate of the Palestinian refugees, who were displaced from their homes in what is now Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and the 1967 Six-Day War, and their descendants, who number in the millions.
- The security arrangements for both states, especially regarding the prevention of terrorism and violence from extremist groups.
- The settlements, which are Jewish communities built by Israel in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and which are considered illegal by most of the international community.

The two-state solution has been supported by the United Nations, the European Union, the Arab League, and many other countries and organizations as the best way to achieve a just and lasting peace in the region¹. However, the two-state solution has also faced many challenges and obstacles, such as:

- The lack of trust and goodwill between the two sides, which have been engaged in a long and bloody conflict.
- The internal divisions and political instability within both the Israeli and the Palestinian societies, which have hindered the formation of coherent and representative leaderships.
- The influence of external actors and regional dynamics, such as the US, Iran, Turkey, and the Arab Spring, which have affected the interests and positions of the parties involved.
- The changing realities on the ground, such as the expansion of the settlements, the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier, the blockade of the Gaza Strip, and the violence and human rights violations committed by both sides.

The two-state solution has been losing support and credibility among both Israelis and Palestinians in recent years, as the prospects for a negotiated agreement seem to fade and the situation on the ground deteriorates. Some alternatives or variations to the two-state solution have been proposed, such as:

- The one-state solution, which would entail the creation of a single democratic state that encompasses all of historical Palestine and grants equal rights to all its citizens, regardless of their ethnicity or religion.
- The three-state solution, which would involve the separation of the Gaza Strip from the West Bank and the establishment of two Palestinian states, one in Gaza and one in the West Bank, alongside Israel.
- The Israeli unilateral plans, which would involve the withdrawal of Israel from parts of the West Bank and the annexation of others, without the consent or involvement of the Palestinians.

However, none of these alternatives have gained much traction or acceptance among the majority of the parties concerned, and the two-state solution remains the most widely endorsed and internationally recognized framework for resolving the conflict.

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